of Josue (Joshua)
Book Of Josue (Joshua)
Chapter 1 verses 1-18 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now it came to pass after the death of Moses the servant of the Lord, that the Lord spoke to Josue the son of Nun, the minister of Moses, and said to him:
 Moses my servant is dead: arise, and pass over this Jordan, thou and thy people with thee, into the land which I will give to the children of Israel.  I will deliver to you every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, as I have said to Moses.  From the desert and from Libanus unto the great river Euphrates, all the land of the Hethites unto the great sea toward the going; down of the sun, shall be your border.  No man shall be able to resist you all the days of thy life: as I have been with Moses, so will I be with thee: I will not leave thee, nor forsake thee.  Take courage, and be strong: for thou shalt divide by lot to this people the land, for which I swore to their fathers, that I would deliver it to them.  Take courage therefore, and be very valiant: that thou mayst observe and do all the law, which Moses my servant hath commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayst understand all things which thou dost.  Let not the book of this law depart from thy mouth: but thou shalt meditate on it day and night, that thou mayst observe and do all things that are written in it: then shalt thou direct thy way, and understand it.  Behold I command thee, take courage, and be strong. Fear not and be not dismayed: because the Lord thy God is with thee in all things whatsoever thou shalt go to.
 And Josue commanded the princes of the people, saying: Pass through the midst of the camp, and command the people, and say:
 Prepare you victuals: for after the third day you shall pass over the Jordan and shall go in to possess the land, which the Lord your God will give you.
 And he said to the Rubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses:
 Remember the word, which Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you, saying: The Lord your God hath given you rest, and all this land.  Your wives, and children, and cattle shall remain in the land which Moses gave you on this side of the Jordan: but pass you over armed before your brethren, all of you that are strong of hand, and fight for them,  Until the Lord give rest to your brethren as he hath given you, and they also possess the land which the Lord your God will give them: and so you shall return into the land of your possession, and you shall dwell in it, which Moses the servant of the Lord gave you beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.
 And they made answer to Josue, and said:
All that thou hast commanded us we will do; and whithersoever thou shalt send us, we will go.  As we obeyed Moses in all things, so will we obey thee also: only be the Lord thy God with thee, as he was with Moses.  He that shall gainsay thy mouth, and not obey all thy words, that thou shalt command him, let him die: only take thou courage, and do manfully.
Chapter 2 verses 1-24 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And Josue the son of Nun sent from Setim two men, to spy secretly: and said to them:
Go, and view the land and the city of Jericho.
They went and entered into the house of a woman that was a harlot named Rahab, and lodged with her.  And it was told the king of Jericho, and was said:
Behold there are men come in hither, by night, of the children of Israel, to spy the land.
 And the king of Jericho sent to Rahab, saying:
Bring forth the men that came to thee, and are entered into thy house: for they are spies, and are come to view all the land.
 And the woman taking the men, hid them, and said:
I confess they came to me, but I knew not whence they were:  And at the time of shutting the gate in the dark, they also went out together. I know not whither they are gone: pursue after them quickly, and you will overtake them.
 But she made the men go up to the top of her house, and covered them with the stalks of flax, which was there.  Now they that were sent, pursued after them, by the way that leadeth to the fords of the Jordan: and as soon as they were gone out, the gate was presently shut.
 The men that were hidden were not yet asleep, when behold the woman went up to them, and said:
 I know that the Lord hath given this land to you: for the dread of you is fallen upon us, and all the inhabitants of the land have lost all strength.  We have heard that the Lord dried up the water of the Red Sea at your going in, when you came out of Egypt: and what things you did to the two kings of the Amorrhites, that were beyond the Jordan: Sehon and Og whom you slew.  And hearing these things we were affrighted, and our heart fainted away, neither did there remain any spirit in us at your coming in: for the Lord your God he is God in heaven above, and in the earth beneath.  Now therefore swear ye to me by the Lord, that as I have shewn mercy to you, so you also will shew mercy to my father's house: and give me a true token,  That you will save my father and mother, my brethren and sisters, and all things that are theirs, and deliver our souls from death.
 They answered her:
Be our lives for you unto death, only if thou betray us not. And when the Lord shall have delivered us the land, we will shew thee mercy and truth.
 Then she let them down with a cord out of a window: for her house joined close to the wall.  And she said to them:
Get ye up to the mountains, lest perhaps they meet you as they return: and there lie ye hid three days, till they come back, and so you shall go on your way.
 And they said to her:
We shall be blameless of this oath, which thou hast made us swear:  If when we come into the land, this scarlet cord be a sign, and thou tie it in the window, by which thou hast let us down: and gather together thy father and mother, and brethren and all thy kindred into thy house.  Whosoever shall go out of the door of thy house, his blood shall be upon his own head, and we shall be quit. But the blood of all that shall be with thee in the house, shall light upon our head, if any man touch them.  But if thou wilt betray us, and utter this word abroad, we shall be quit of this oath which thou hast made us swear.
 And she answered:
As you have spoken, so be it done.
And sending them on their way, she hung the scarlet cord in the window.
 But they went and came to the mountains, and stayed there three days till they that pursued them were returned. For having sought them through all the way, they found them not.  And when they were gone back into the city, the spies returned, and came down from the mountain: and passing over the Jordan, they came to Josue the son of Nun, and told him all that befel them.  And said:
The Lord hath delivered all this land into our hands, and all the inhabitants thereof are overthrown with fear.
Chapter 3 verses 1-6, 10b and 12 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And Josue rose before daylight, and removed the camp: and they departed from Setim, and came to the Jordan, he, and all the children of Israel, and they abode there for three days.
 After which, the heralds went through the midst of the camp,  And began to proclaim:
When you shall see the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God, and the priests of the race of Levi carrying it, rise you up also, and follow them as they go before:  And let there be between you and the ark the space of two thousand cubits: that you may see it afar off, and know which way you must go: for you have not gone this way before: and take care you come not near the ark.
 And Josue said to the people:
Be ye sanctified: for tomorrow the Lord will do wonders among you.
 And he said to the priests:
Take up the ark of the covenant, and go before the people.
And they obeyed his commands, and took it up and walked before them.
 ... and that he shall destroy before your sight the Chanaanite and the Hethite, the Hevite and the Pherezite, the Gergesite also and the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite. …  Prepare ye twelve men of the tribes of Israel, one of every tribe.
Chapter 4 verses 1-25 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And when they were passed over, the Lord said to Josue:
 Choose twelve men, one of every tribe:  And command them to take out of the midst of the Jordan, where the feet of the priests stood, twelve very hard stones, which you shall set in the place of the camp, where you shall pitch your tents this night.
 And Josue called twelve men, whom he had chosen out of the children of Israel, one out of every tribe,  And he said to them:
Go before the ark of the Lord your God to the midst of the Jordan, and carry from thence every man a stone on your shoulders, according to the number of the children of Israel,  That it may be a sign among you and when your children shall ask you tomorrow, saying: What mean these stones?  You shall answer them: The waters of the Jordan ran off before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, when it passed over the same: therefore were these atones set for a monument of the children of Israel for ever.
 The children of Israel therefore did as Josue commanded them, carrying out of the channel of the Jordan twelve stones, as the Lord had commanded him, according to the number of the children of Israel, unto the place wherein they camped, and there they set them.
 And Josue put other twelve stones in the midst of the channel of the Jordan, where the priests stood that carried the ark of the covenant: and they are there until this present day.
 Now the priests that carried the ark, stood in the midst of the Jordan till all things were accomplished which the Lord had commanded Josue to speak to the people, and Moses had said to him. And the people made haste and passed over.  And when they had all passed over, the ark also of the Lord passed over, and the priests went before the people.  The children of Ruben also and Gad, and half the tribe of Manasses, went armed before the children of Israel as Moses had commanded them.  And forty thousand fighting men by their troops, and bands, marched through the plains and fields of the city of Jericho.  In that day the Lord magnified Josue in the sight of all Israel, that they should fear him, as they had feared Moses, while he lived.
 And he said to him:
 Command the priests, that carry the ark of the covenant, to come up out of the Jordan.
 And he commanded them, saying:
Come ye up out of the Jordan.
 And when they that carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, were come up, and began to tread on the dry ground, the waters returned into the channel, and ran as they were wont before.
 And the people came up out of the Jordan, the tenth day of the first month, and camped in Galgal, over against the east side of the city of Jericho.  And the twelve stones which they had taken out of the channel of the Jordan, Josue pitched in Galgal,  And said to the children of Israel:
When your children shall ask their fathers, tomorrow, and shall say to them: What mean these stones?  You shall teach them and say: Israel passed over this Jordan through the dry channel.  The Lord your God drying up the waters thereof in your sight, until you passed over:  As he had done before in the Red Sea, which he dried up till we passed through:  That all the people of the earth may learn the most mighty hand of the Lord, that you also may fear the Lord your God for ever.
Chapter 5 verses 1-8, 9b and 13-16 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now when all the kings of the Amorrhites, who dwelt beyond the Jordan westward, and all the kings of Chanaan, who possessed the places near the great sea, had heard that the Lord had dried up the waters of the Jordan before the children of Israel, till they passed over, their heart failed them, and there remained no spirit in them, fearing the coming in of the children of Israel.
 At that time the Lord said to Josue:
Make thee knives of stone, and circumcise the second time the children of Israel.
 He did what the Lord had commanded, and he circumcised the children of Israel in the hill of the foreskins.
 Now this is the cause of the second circumcision: All the people that came out of Egypt that were males, all the men fit for war, died in the desert, during the time of the long going about in the way.  Now these were all circumcised. But the people that were born in the desert,  Luring the forty years of the journey in the wide wilderness, were uncircumcised: till all they were consumed that had not heard the voice of the Lord, and to whom he had sworn before, that he would not shew them the land flowing with milk and honey.  The children of these succeeded in the place of their fathers, and were circumcised by Josue: for they were uncircumcised even as they were born, and no one had circumcised them in the way.
 Now after they were all circumcised, they remained in the same place of the camp, until they were healed.  ….
And the name of that place was called Galgal, until this present day.
 And when Josue was in the field of the city of Jericho, he lifted up his eyes, and saw a man standing over against him: holding a drawn sword, and he went to him, and said:
Art thou one of ours, or of our adversaries?
 And he answered:
No: but I am prince of the host of the Lord, and now I am come.
 Josue fell on his face to the ground. And worshipping, add:
What saith my lord to his servant?
 Loose, saith he, thy shoes from off thy feet: for the place whereon thou standest is holy.
And Josue did as was commanded him.
Chapter 6 verses 1-27 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now Jericho was close shut up and fenced, for fear of the children of Israel, and no man durst go out or come in.
 And the Lord said to Josue:
Behold I have given into thy hands Jericho, and the king thereof, and all the valiant men.  Go round about the city, all ye fighting men, once a day: so shall ye do for six days.  And on the seventh day the priests shall take the seven trumpets, which are used in the jubilee, and shall go before the ark of the covenant: and you shall go about the city seven times, and the priests shall sound the trumpets.  And when the voice of the trumpet shall give a longer and broken tune, and shall sound in your ears, all the people shall shout together with a very great shout, and the walls of the city shall fall to the ground, and they shall enter in every one at the place against which they shall stand.
 Then Josue the son of Nun called the priests, and said to them:
Take the ark of the covenant: and let seven other priests take the seven trumpets of the jubilee, and march before the ark of the Lord.
 And he said to the people:
Go, and compass the city, armed, marching before the ark of the Lord.
 And when Josue had ended his words, and the seven priests blew the seven trumpets before the ark of the covenant of the Lord,  And all the armed men went before, the rest of the common people followed the ark, and the sound of the trumpets was heard on all sides.  But Josue had commanded the people, saying:
You shall not shout, nor shall your voice be heard, nor any word go out of your mouth: until the day come wherein I shall say to you: Cry, and shout.
 So the ark of the Lord went about the city once a day, and returning into the camp, abode there.  And Josue rising before day, the priests took the ark of the Lord,  And seven of them seven trumpets, which are used in the jubilee: and they went before the ark of the Lord walking and sounding the trumpets: and the armed men went before them, and the rest of the common people followed the ark, and they blew the trumpets.  And they went round about the city the second day once, and returned into the camp. So they did six days.  But the seventh day, rising up early, they went about the city, as it was ordered, seven times.  And when in the seventh going about the priests sounded with the trumpets, Josue said to all Israel:
Shout: for the Lord hath delivered the city to you:  And let this city be an anathema, and all things that are in it, to the Lord. Let only Rahab the harlot live, with all that are with her in the house: for she hid the messengers whom we sent.  But beware ye lest you touch ought of those things that are forbidden, and you be guilty of transgression, and all the camp of Israel be under sin, and be troubled.  But whatsoever gold or silver there shall be, or vessels of brass and iron, let it be consecrated to the Lord, laid up in his treasures.
 So all the people making a shout, and the trumpets sounding, when the voice and the sound thundered in the ears of the multitude, the walls forthwith fell down: and every man went up by the place that was over against him: and they took the city,  And killed all that were in it, man and woman, young and old. The oxen also and the sheep, and the asses, they slew with the edge of the sword.
 But Josue said to the two men that had been sent for spies:
Go into the harlot's house, and bring her out, and all things that are hers, as you assured her by oath.
 And the young men went in and brought out Rahab, and her parents, her brethren also and all her goods and her kindred, and made them to stay without the camp.
 But they burned the city, and all things that were therein; except the gold and silver, and vessels of brass and iron, which they consecrated into the treasury of the Lord.
 But Josue saved Rahab the harlot and her father's house, and all she had, and they dwelt in the midst of Israel until this present day: because she hid the messengers whom he had sent to spy out Jericho.
At that time, Josue made an imprecation, saying:
 Cursed be the man before the Lord, that shall raise up and build the city of Jericho. In his firstborn may he lay the foundation thereof, and in the last of his children set up its gates.
 And the Lord was with Josue, and his name was noised throughout all the land.
Chapter 7 verses 1-26 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 But the children of Israel transgressed the commandment, and took to their own use of the anathema. For Achan the son of Charmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zare of the tribe of Juda, took something of the anathema: and the Lord was angry against the children of Israel.
 And when Josue sent men from Jericho against Hai, which is beside Bethaven, on the east side of the town of Bethel, he said to them:
Go up, and view the country:
and they fulfilled his command, and viewed Hai.  And returning they said to him:
Let not all the people go up, but let two or three thousand men go and destroy the city: why should all the people be troubled in vain against enemies that are very few?
 There went up therefore three thousand fighting men: who immediately turned their backs,  And were defeated by the men of the city of Hai, and there fell of them six and thirty men: and the enemies pursued them from the gate as far as Sabarim, and they slew them as they fled by the descent: and the heart of the people was struck with fear, and melted like water.
 But Josue rent his garments, and fell flat on the ground before the ark of the Lord until the evening, both he and all the ancients of Israel: and they put dust upon their heads.  And Josue said:
Alas, O Lord God, why wouldst thou bring this people over the river Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorrhite, and to destroy us? would God, we had stayed beyond the Jordan as we began.  My Lord God, what shall I say, seeing Israel turning their backs to their enemies?  The Chanaanites, and all the inhabitants of the land will hear of it, and being gathered together will surround us and cut off our name from the earth: and what wilt thou do to thy great name?
 And the Lord said to Josue:
Arise, why liest thou flat on the ground?  Israel hath sinned, and transgressed my covenant: and they have taken of the anathema, and have stolen and lied, and have hidden it among their goods.  Neither can Israel stand before his enemies, but he shall flee from them: because he is defiled with the anathema. I will be no more with you, till you destroy him that is guilty of this wickedness.  Arise, sanctify the people, and say to them: Be ye sanctified against tomorrow: for thus saith the Lord God of Israel: The anathema is in the midst of thee, O Israel: thou canst not stand before thy enemies, till he be destroyed out of thee that is defiled with this wickedness.  And you shall come in the morning every one by your tribes: and what tribe soever the lot shall find, it shall come by its kindreds and the kindred by its houses, and the house by the men.  And whosoever he be that shall be found guilty of this fact, he shall be burnt with fire with all his substance, because he hath transgressed the covenant of the Lord, and hath done wickedness in Israel.
 Josue, therefore, when he rose in the morning, made Israel to come by their tribes, and the tribe of Juda was found,  Which being brought by its families, it was found to be the family of Zare. Bringing that also by the houses, he found it to be Zabdi.  And bringing his house man by man, he found Achan the son of Charmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zare of the tribe of Juda.
 And Josue said to Achan:
My son, give glory to the Lord God of Israel, and confess, and tell me what thou hast done, hide it not.
 And Achan answered Josue, and said to him:
Indeed I have sinned against the Lord the God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done.  For I saw among the spoils a scarlet garment exceeding good, and two hundred sides of silver, and a golden rule of fifty sides: and I coveted them, and I took them away, and hid them in the ground is the midst of my tent, and the silver I covered with the earth that I dug up.
 Josue therefore sent ministers: who running to his tent, found all hidden in the same place, together with the silver.  And taking them away out of the tent, they brought them to Josue, and to all the children of Israel, and threw them down before the Lord.
 Then Josue and all Israel with him took Achan the son of Zare, and the silver and the garments, and the golden rule, his sons also and his daughters, his oxen and asses and sheep, the tent also, and all the goods: and brought them to the valley of Achor:  Where Josue said:
Because thou hast troubled us, the Lord trouble thee this day.
And all Israel stoned him: and all things that were his, were consumed with fire.  And they gathered together upon him a great heap of stones, which remaineth until this present day. And the wrath of the Lord was turned away from them. And the name of that place was called the Valley of Achor, until this day.
Chapter 8 verses 1-35 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And the Lord said to Josue:
Fear not, nor be thou dismayed: take with thee all the multitude of fighting men, arise and go up to the town of Hai. Behold I have delivered into thy hand the king thereof, and the people, and the city, and the land.  And thou shalt do to the city of Hai, and to the king thereof, as thou hast done to Jericho, and to the king thereof: but the spoils and all the cattle you shall take for a prey to yourselves: lay an ambush for the city behind it.
 And Josue arose, and all the army of the fighting men with him, to go up against Hai: and he sent thirty thousand chosen valiant men in the night,  And commanded them, saying:
Lay an ambush behind the city: and go not very far from it: and be ye all ready.  But I and the rest of the multitude which is with me; will approach on the contrary side against the city. And when they shall come out against us, we will flee, and turn our backs, as we did before:  Till they pursuing us be drawn farther from the city: for they will think that we flee as before.  And whilst we are fleeing, and they pursuing, you shall arise out of the ambush, and shall destroy the city: and the Lord your God will deliver it into our hands.  And when you shall have taken it, set it on fire, and you shall do all things so as I have commanded.
 And he sent them away, and they went on to the place of the ambush, and abode between Bethel and Hai, on the west side of the city of Hai. But Josue stayed that night in the midst of the people,  And rising early in the morning, he mustered his soldiers, and went up with the ancients in the front of the army environed with the aid of the fighting men.  And when they were come, and were gone up over against the city, they stood on the north side of the city, between which and them there was a valley in the midst.  And he had chosen five thousand men, and set them to lie in ambush between Bethel and Hai, on the west side of the same city:  But all the rest of the army went in battle array on the north side, so that the last of that multitude reached to the west side of the city. So Josue went that night, and stood in the midst of the valley.
 And when the king of Hai saw this, he made haste in the morning, and went out with all the army of the city, and set it in battle array toward the desert, not knowing that there lay an ambush behind his back.  But Josue, and all Israel gave back, making as if they were afraid, and fleeing by the way of the wilderness.  But they shouting together, and encouraging one another, pursued them. And when they were come from the city,  And not one remained in the city of Hai and of Bethel, that did not pursue after Israel, leaving the towns open as they had rushed out,
 The Lord said to Josue:
Lift up the shield that is in thy hand, towards the city of Hai, for I will deliver it to thee.
 And when he had lifted up his shield towards the city, the ambush that lay hid, rose up immediately: and going to the city, took it and set it on fire.  And the men of the city, that pursued after Josue, looking back and seeing the smoke of the city rise up to heaven, had no more power to flee this way or that way: especially as they that had counterfeited flight, and were going toward the wilderness, turned back most valiantly against them that pursued.  So Josue and all Israel seeing that the city was taken, and that the smoke of the city rose up, returned and slew the men of Hai.  And they also that had taken and set the city on fire, issuing out of the city to meet their own men, began to cut off the enemies who were surrounded by them. So that the enemies being cut off on both sides, not one of so great a multitude was saved.  And they took the king of the city of Hai alive, and brought him to Josue.
 So all being slain that had pursued after Israel in his flight to the wilderness, and tailing by the sword in the same place, the children of Israel returned and laid waste the city.  And the number of them that fell that day, both of men and women, was twelve thousand persons all of the city of Hai.  But Josue drew not back his hand, which he had stretched out on high, holding the shield, till all the inhabitants of Hai were slain.
 And the children of Israel divided among them the cattle and the prey of the city, as the Lord had commanded Josue.  And he burned the city, and made it a heap for ever:  And he hung the king thereof on a gibbet until the evening and the going down of the sun. Then Josue commanded, and they took down his carcass from the gibbet: and threw it in the very entrance of the city, heaping upon it a great heap of stones, which remaineth until this present day.
 Then Josue built an altar to the Lord the God of Israel in mount Hebal,  As Moses the servant of the Lord had commanded the children of Israel, and it is written in the book of the law of Moses: an altar of unhewn stones which iron had not touched: and he offered upon it holocausts to the Lord, and immolated victims of peace offerings.
 And he wrote upon stones the Deuteronomy of the law of Moses, which he had ordered before the children of Israel.  And all the people, and the ancients, and the princes and judges stood on both sides of the ark, before the priests that carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, both the stranger and he that was born among them, half of them by mount Garizim, and half by mount Hebal, as Moses the servant of the Lord had commanded. And first he blessed the people of Israel.
 After this he read all the words of the blessing and the cursing and all things that were written in the hook of the law.  He left out nothing of those things which Moses had commanded, but he repeated all before all the people of Israel, with the women and children and strangers that dwelt among them.
Chapter 9 verses 1-27 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now When these things were heard of, all the kings beyond the Jordan, that dwelt in the mountains and in the plains, in the places near the sea, and on the coasts of the great sea, they also that dwell by Libanus, the Hethite and the Amorrhite, the Chanaanite, the Pherezite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite,  Gathered themselves together, to fight against Josue and Israel with one mind, and one resolution.
 But they that dwelt in Gabaon, hearing all that Josue had done to Jericho and Hai:  Cunningly devising took for themselves provisions, laying old sacks upon their asses, and wine bottles rent and sewed up again,  And very old shoes, which for a shew of age were clouted with patches, and old garments upon them: the leaves also, which they carried for provisions by the way, were hard, and broken into pieces:
 And they went to Josue, who then abode in the camp at Galgal, and said to him, and to all Israel with him:
We are come from a far country, desiring to make peace with you.
And the children of Israel answered them, and said:
 Perhaps you dwell in the land which falls to our lot; if so, we can make no league with you.
 But they said to Josue:
We are thy servants.
Josue said to them:
Who are you? and whence came you?
 They answered:
From a very far country thy servants are come in the name of the Lord thy God. For we have heard the fame of his power, all the things that he did in Egypt.  And to the two kings of the Amorrhites that were beyond the Jordan, Sehon king of Hesebon, and Og king of Basan, that was in Astaroth:  And our ancients, and all the inhabitants of our country said to us: Take with you victuals for a long way, and go meet them, and say: We are your servants, make ye a league with us.  Behold, these leaves we took hot, when we set out from our houses to come to you, now they are become dry, and broken in pieces, by being exceeding old.  These bottles of wine when we filled them were new, now they are rent and burst. These garments we have on, and the shoes we have on our feet, by reason of the very long journey are worn out, and almost consumed.
 They took therefore of their victuals, and consulted not the mouth of the Lord.  And Josue made peace with them, and entering into a league promised that they should not be slain: the princes also of the multitude swore to them.
 Now three days after the league was made, they heard that they dwelt nigh, and they should be among them.  And the children of Israel removed the camp, and came into their cities on the third day, the names of which are Gabaon, and Caphira, and Beroth, and Cariathiarim.  And they slew them not, because the princes of the multitude had sworn in the name of the Lord the God of Israel. Then all the common people murmured against the princes.
 And they answered them:
We have sworn to them in the name of the Lord the God of Israel, and therefore we may not touch them.  But this we mill do to them: Let their lives be saved, lest the wrath of the Lord be stirred up against us, if we should be forsworn.  But so let them live, as to serve the whole multitude in hewing wood, and bringing in water.
As they were speaking these things,  Josue called the Gabaonites and said to them:
Why would you impose upon us, saying: We dwell far off from you, whereas you are in the midst of us?  Therefore you shall be under a curse, and your race shall always be hewers of wood, and carriers of water unto the house of my God.
 They answered:
It was told us thy servants, that the Lord thy God had promised his servant Moses to give you all the land, and to destroy all the inhabitants thereof. Therefore we feared exceedingly and provided for our lives. compelled by the dread we had of you and we took this counsel.  And now we are in thy hand: deal with us as it seemeth good and right unto thee.
 So Josue did as he had said, and delivered them from the hand of the children of Israel, that they should not be slain.  And he gave orders in that day that they should be in the service of all the people, and of the altar of the Lord, hewing wood and carrying water, until this present time, in the place which the Lord hath chosen.
Chapter 10 verses 1-43 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 When Adonisedec king of Jerusalem had heard these things, to wit, that Josue had taken Hai, and had destroyed it, (for as he had done to Jericho and the king thereof, so did he to Hai, and its king,) and that the Gabaonites were gone over to Israel, and were their confederates,  He was exceedingly afraid. For Gabaon was a great city, and one of the royal cities, and greater than the town of Hai, and all its fighting men were most valiant.
 Therefore Adonisedec king of Jerusalem sent to Oham king of Hebron, and to Pharam king of Jerimoth, and to Japhia king of Lachis, and to Dabir king of Eglon, saying:
 Come up to me, and bring help, that we may take Gabaon, because it hath gone over to Josue, and to the children of Israel.
 So the five kings of the Amorrhites being assembled together went up: the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jerimoth, the king of Lachis, the king of Eglon, they and their armies, and camped about Gabaon, laying siege to it.
 But the inhabitants of the city of Gabaon which was besieged, sent to Josue, who then abode in the camp at Galgal, and said to him:
Withdraw not thy hands from helping thy servants: come up quickly and save us, and bring us succour: for all the kings of the Amorrhites, who dwell in the mountains, are gathered together against us.
 And Josue went up from Galgal, and all the army of the warriors with him, most valiant men.  And the Lord said to Josue:
Fear them not: for I have delivered them into thy hands: none of them shall be able to stand against thee.
 So Josue going up from Galgal all the night, came upon them suddenly.  And the Lord troubled them at the sight of Israel: and he slew them with a great slaughter in Gabaon, and pursued them by the way of the ascent to Beth-horon, and cut them off all the way to Azeca and Maceda.  And when they were fleeing from the children of Israel, and were in the descent of Beth-horon, the Lord cast down upon them great stones from heaven as far as Azeca: and many more were killed with the hailstones than were slain by the swords of the children of Israel.
 Then Josue spoke to the Lord, in the day that he delivered the Amorrhite in the sight of the children of Israel, and he said before them:
Move not, O sun, toward Gabaon, nor thou, O moon, toward the valley of Ajalon.
 And the sun and the moon stood still, till the people revenged themselves of their enemies.
Is not this written in the book of the just?
So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down the space of one day.  There was not before nor after so long a day, the Lord obeying the voice of a man, and fighting for Israel.
 And Josue returned with all Israel into the camp of Galgal.  For the five kings were fled, and had hidden themselves in a cave of the city of Maceda.
 And it was told Josue that the five kings were found hidden in a cave of the city of Maceda.
 And he commanded them that were with him, saying:
Roll great stones to the mouth of the cave, and set careful men, to keep them shut up:  And stay you not, but pursue after the enemies, and kill all the hindermost of them as they flee, and do not suffer them whom the Lord God hath delivered into your hands to shelter themselves in their cities.
 So the enemies being slain with a great slaughter, and almost utterly consumed, they that were able to escape from Israel, entered into fenced cities.  And all the army returned to Josue in Maceda, where the camp then was, in good health and without the loss of any one: and no man durst move his tongue against the children of Israel.
 And Josue gave orders, saying:
Open the mouth of the cave, and bring forth to me the five kings that lie hid therein.
 And the ministers did as they were commanded: and they brought out to him the five kings out of the cave: the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jerimoth, the king of Lachis, the king of Eglon.  And when they were Drought out to him, he called all the men of Israel, and said to the chiefs of the army that were with him:
Go, and set your feet on the necks of these kings.
And when they had gone, and put their feet upon the necks of them lying under them,  He said again to them:
Fear not, neither be ye dismayed, take courage and be strong: for so will the Lord do to all your enemies, against whom you fight.
 And Josue struck, and slew them, and hanged them upon five gibbets, and they hung until the evening.  And when the sun was down, he commanded the soldiers to take them down from the gibbets. And after they were taken down, they cast them into the cave where they had lain hid, and put great stones at the mouth thereof, which remain until this day.
 The same day Josue took Maceda and destroyed it, with the edge of the sword, and killed the king and all the inhabitants thereof: he left not in it the least remains. And he did to the king of Maceda, as he had done to the king of Jericho.
 And he passed from Maceda with all Israel to Lebna, and fought against it:  And the Lord delivered it with the king thereof into the hands of Israel: and they destroyed the city with the edge of the sword, and all the inhabitants thereof. They left not in it any remains. And they did to the king of Lebna, as they had done to the king of Jericho.
 From Lebna he passed unto Lachis, with all Israel: and investing it with his army, besieged it.  And the Lord delivered Lachis into the hands of Israel, and he took it the following day, and put it to the sword, and every soul that was in it, as he had done to Lebna.  At that time Horam king of Gazer, came up to succour Lachis: and Josue slew him with all his people, so as to leave none alive.
 And he passed from Lachis to Eglon, and surrounded it,  And took it the same day: and put to the sword all the souls that were in it, according to all that he had done to Lachis.
 He went up also with all Israel from Eglon to Hebron, and fought against it:  Took it, and destroyed it with the edge of the sword: the king also thereof, and all the towns of that country, and all the souls that dwelt in it: he left not therein any remains: as he had done to Eglon, so did he also to Hebron, putting to the sword all that he found in it.
 Returning from thence to Dabir,  He took it and destroyed it: the king also thereof and all the towns round about he destroyed with the edge of the sword: he left not in it any remains: as he had done to Hebron and Lebna and to their kings, so did he to Dabir and to the king thereof.
 So Josue conquered all the country of the hills and of the south and of the plain, and of Asedoth, with their kings: he left not any remains therein, but slew all that breathed, as the Lord the God of Israel had commanded him,  From Cadesbarne even to Gaza. All the land of Gosen even to Gabaon,  And all their kings, and their lands he took and wasted at one onset: for the Lord the God of Israel fought for him.  And he returned with all Israel to the place of the camp in Galgal.
Chapter 11 verses 1-23 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And when Jabin king of Asor had heard these things, he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Semeron, and to the king of Achsaph:  And to the kings of the north, that dwelt in the mountains and in the plains over against the south side of Ceneroth, and in the levels and the countries of Dor by the sea side:  To the Chanaanites also on the ease and on the west, and the Amorrhite, and the Hethite, and the Pherezite, and the Jebusite in the mountains: to the Hevite also who dwelt at the foot of Hermon in the land of Maspha.  And they all came out with their troops, a people exceeding numerous as the sand that is on the sea shore, their horses also and chariots a very great multitude,  And all these kings assembled together at the waters of Merom, to fight against Israel.
 And the Lord said to Josue:
Fear them not: for tomorrow at this same hour I will deliver all these to be slain in the sight of Israel: thou shalt hamstring their horses, and thou shalt burn their chariots with fire.
 And Josue came, and all the army with him, against them to the waters of Merom on a sudden, and fell upon them.  And the Lord delivered them into the hands of Israel. And they defeated them, and chased them as far as the great Sidon, and the waters of Maserophot, and the field of Masphe, which is on the east side thereof. He slew them all, so as to leave no remains of them:
 And he did as the Lord had commanded him, he hamstringed their horses and burned their chariots.  And presently turning back he took Asor: and slew the king thereof with the sword. Now Asor of old was the head of all these kingdoms.  And he cut off all the souls that abode there: he left not in it any remains, but utterly destroyed all, and burned the city itself with fire.
 And he took and put to the sword and destroyed all the cities round about, and their kings, as Moses the servant of God had commanded him.  Except the cities that were on hills and high places, the rest Israel burned: only Asor that was very strong he consumed with fire.  And the children of Israel divided among themselves all the spoil of these cities and the cattle, killing all the men.
 As the Lord had commanded Moses his servant, so did Moses command Josue, and he accomplished all: he left not one thing undone of all the commandments which the Lord had commanded Moses.
 So Josue took all the country of the hills, and of the south, and the land of Gosen, and the plains and the west country, and the mountain of Israel, and the plains thereof:  And part of the mountain that goeth up to Seir as far as Baalgad, by the plain of Libanus under mount Hermon: all their kings he took, smote and slew.
 Josue made war a long time against these kings.  There was hot a city that delivered itself to the children of Israel, except the Hevite, who dwelt in Gabaon: for he took all by fight.  For it was the sentence of the Lord, that their hearts should be hardened, and they should fight against Israel, and fall, and should not deserve any clemency, and should be destroyed as the Lord had commanded Moses.
 At that time Josue came and cut off the Enacims from the mountains, from Hebron, and Dabir, and Anab, and from all the mountain of Juda and Israel, and destroyed their cities.  He left not any of the stock of the Enacims, in the land of the children of Israel: except the cities of Gaza, and Geth, and Azotus, in which alone they were left.
 So Josue took all the land, as the Lord spoke to Moses, and delivered it in possession to the children of Israel, according to their divisions and tribes. And the land rested from wars.
Chapter 12 verses 1-24 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 These are the kings, whom the children of Israel slew and possessed their land beyond the Jordan towards the rising of the sun, from the torrent Arnon unto mount Hermon, and all the east country that looketh towards the wilderness.
 Sehon king of the Amorrhites, who dwelt in Hesebon, and had dominion from Aroer, which is seated upon the bank of the torrent Arnon, and of the middle part in the valley, and of half Galaad, as far as the torrent Jaboc, which is the border of the children of Ammon.  And from the wilderness, to the sea of Ceneroth towards the east, and to the sea of the wilderness, which is the most salt sea, on the east side by the way that leadeth to Bethsimoth: and on the south side that lieth under Asedoth, Phasga.
 The border of Og the king of Basan, of the remnant of the Raphaims who dwelt in Astaroth, and in Edrai, and had dominion in mount Hermon, and in Salecha, and in all Basan, unto the borders  Of Gessuri and Machati, and of half Galaad: the borders of Sehon the king of Hesebon.
 Moses the servant of the Lord, and the children of Israel slew them, and Moses delivered their land in possession to the Rubenites, and Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses.
 These are the kings of the land, whom Josue and the children of Israel slew beyond the Jordan on the west side from Baalgad in the held of Libanus, unto the mount, part of which goeth up into Seir: and Josue delivered it in possession to the tribes of Israel, to every one their divisions,  As well in the mountains as in the plains and the champaign countries. In Asedoth, and in the wilderness, and in the south was the Hethite and the Amorrhite, the Chanaanite and the Pherezite, the Hevite and the Jebusite.  The king of Jericho one: the king of Hai, which is on the side of Bethel, one:  The king of Jerusalem one, the king of Hebron one.  The king of Jerimoth one, the king of Lachis one,  The king of Eglon one, the king of Gazer one,  The king of Dabir one, the king of Gader one,  The king of Herma one, the king of Hered one,  The king of Lebna one, the king of Odullam one,  The king of Maceda one, the king of Bethel one,  The king of Taphua one, the king of Opher one,  The king of Aphec one, the king of Saron one,  The king of Madon one, the king of Asor one,  The king of Semeron one, the king of Achsaph one,  The king of Thenac one, the king of Megeddo one,  The king of Cades one, the king of Jachanan of Carmel one,  The king of Dor, and of the province of Dor one, the king of the nations of Galgal one,  The king of Thersa one: all the kings thirty and one.
Chapter 13 verses 1-33 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Josue was old, and far advanced in years, and the Lord said to him:
Thou art grown old, and advanced in age, and there is a very large country left, which is not yet divided by lot:  To wit, all Galilee, Philistia, and all Gessuri.  From the troubled river, that watereth Egypt, unto the borders of Accaron northward: the land of Chanaan, which is divided among the lords of the Philistines, the Gazites, the Azotians, the Ascalonites, the Gethites, and the Accronites.  And on the south side are the Hevites, all the land of Chanaan, and Maara of the Sidonians as far as Apheca, and the borders of the Amorrhite,  And his confines. The country also of Libanus towards the east from Baalgad under mount Hermon to the entering into Emath.  Of all that dwell in the mountains from Libanus, to the waters of Maserephoth, and all the Sidonians. I am he that will cut them off from before the face of the children of Israel. So let their land come in as a part of the inheritance of Israel, as I have commanded thee.  And now divide the land in possession to the nine tribes, and to the half tribe of Manasses,
 With whom Ruben and Gad have possessed the land, which Moses the servant of the Lord delivered to them beyond the river Jordan, on the east side.  From Aroer, which is upon the bank of the torrent Amen, and in the midst of the valley and all the plains of Medaba, as far as Dibon:  And all the cities of Sehon, king of the Amorrhites, who reigned in Hesebon, unto the borders of the children of Ammon.  And Galaad, and the borders of Gessuri and Machati, and all mount Hermon, and all Basan as far as Salecha,  All the kingdom of Og in Basan, who reigned in Astaroth and Edrai, he was of the remains of the Raphaims: and Moses overthrew and destroyed them.  And the children of Israel would not destroy Gessuri and Machati: and they have dwelt in the midst of Israel, until this present day.
 But to the tribe of Levi he gave no possession: but the sacrifices and victims of the Lord God of Israel, are his inheritance, as he spoke to him.
 And Moses gave a possession to the children of Ruben according to their kindreds.  And their border was from Aroer, which is on the bank of the torrent Arnon, and in the midst of the valley of the same torrent: all the plain, that leadeth to Medaba,  And Hesebon, and all their villages, which are in the plains. Dibon also, and Bamothbaal, and the town of Baalmaon,  And Jassa, and Cidimoth, and Mephaath,  And Cariathaim, and Sabama, and Sarathasar in the mountain of the valley.  Bethphogor and Asedoth, Phasga and Bethiesimoth,  And all the cities of the plain, and all the kingdoms of Sehon king of the Amorrhites, that reigned in Hesebon, whom Moses slew with the princes of Madian: Hevi, and Recem, and Sur and Hur, and Rebe, dukes of Sehon inhabitants of the land.  Balaam also the son of Beer the soothsayer, the children of Israel slew with the sword among the rest that were slain.  And the river Jordan was the herder of the children of Ruben. This is the possession of the Rubenites, by their kindreds, of cities and villages.
 And Moses gave to the tribe of Gad and to his children by their kindreds a possession, of which this is the division.  The border of Jaser, and all the cities of Galaad, and half the land of the children of Ammon: as far as Aroer which is over against Rabba:  And from Hesebon unto Ramoth, Masphe and Betonim: and from Manaim unto the borders of Dabir.  And in the valley Betharan and Bethnemra, and Socoth, and Saphon the other part of the kingdom of Sehon king of Hesebon: the limit of this also is the Jordan, as far as the uttermost part of the sea of Cenereth beyond the Jordan on the east side.  This is the possession of the children of Gad by their families, their cities, and villages.
 He gave also to the half tribe of Manasses and his children possession according to their kindreds,  The beginning whereof is this: from Manaim all Basan, and all the kingdoms of Og king of Basan, and all the villages of Jair, which are in Basan, threescore towns.  And half Galaad, and Astaroth, and Edrai, cities of the kingdom of Og in Basan: to the children of Machir, the son of Manasses, to one? half of the children of Machir according to their kindreds.  This possession Moses divided in the plains of Moab, beyond the Jordan, over against Jericho on the east side.  But to the tribe of Levi he gave no possession: because the Lord the God of Israel himself is their possession, as he spoke to them.
Chapter 14 verses 1-15 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 This is what the children of Israel possessed in the land of Chanaan, which Eleazar the priest, and Josue the son of Nun, and the princes of the families by the tribes of Israel gave to them:  Dividing all by lot, as the Lord had commanded by the hand of Moses, to the nine tribes, and the half tribe.  For to two tribes and a half Moses had given possession beyond the Jordan: besides the Levites, who received no land among their brethren:  But in their place succeeded the children of Joseph divided into two tribes, of Manasses and Ephraim: neither did the Levites receive other portion of land, but cities to dwell in, and their suburbs to feed their beasts and flocks.  As the Lord had commanded Moses, so did the children of Israel, and they divided the land.
 Then the children of Juda came to Josue in Galgal, and Caleb the son of Jephone the Cenezite spoke to him:
Thou knowest what the Lord spoke to Moses the man of God concerning me and thee in Cadesbarne.  I was forty Bears old when Moses the servant of the Lord sent me from Cadesbarne, to view the land, and I brought him word again as to me seemed true.  But my brethren, that had gone up with me, discouraged the heart of the people: and I nevertheless followed the Lord my God.  And Moses swore in that day, saying: The land which thy foot hath trodden upon shall be thy possession, and thy children's for ever, because thou hast followed the Lord my God.  The Lord therefore hath granted me life, as he promised until this present day. It is forty and five years since the Lord spoke this word to Moses, when Israel journeyed through the wilderness: this day I am eighty-five years old,  As strong as I was at that time when I was sent to view the land: the strength of that time continueth in me until this day, as well to fight as to march.  Give me therefore this mountain, which the Lord promised, in thy hearing also, wherein are the Enacims, and cities great and strong: if so be the Lord will be with me, and I shall be able to destroy them, as he promised me.
 And Josue blessed him, and gave him Hebron in possession.  And from that time Hebron belonged to Caleb the son of Jephone the Cenezite, until this present day: because he followed the Lord the God of Israel.  The name of Hebron before was called Cariath-Arbe: Adam the greatest among the Enacims was laid there:
and the land rested from wars.
Chapter 15 verses 1-63 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now the lot of the children of Juda by their kindreds was this: From the frontier of Edom, to the desert of Sin southward, and to the uttermost part of the south coast.  Its beginning was from the top of the most salt sea, and from the bay thereof, that looketh to the south.  And it goeth out towards the ascent of the Scorpion, and passeth on to Sina: and ascendeth into Cadesbarne, and reacheth into Esron, going up to Addar, and compassing Carcaa.  And from thence passing along into Asemona, and reaching the torrent of Egypt: and the bounds thereof shall be the great sea, this shall be the limit of the south coast.
 But on the east side the beginning shall be the most salt sea even to the end of the Jordan:
and towards the north, from the bay of the sea unto the same river Jordan.  And the border goeth up into Beth-Hagla, and passeth by the north into Beth-Araba: going up to the stone of Boen the son of Ruben.  And reaching as far as the borders of Debara from the valley of Achor, and so northward looking towards Galgal, which is opposite to the ascent of Adommin, on the south side of the torrent: and the border passeth the waters that are called the fountain of the sun: and the goings out thereof shall be at the fountain Rogel.  And it goeth up by the valley of the son of Ennom on the side of the Jebusite towards the south, the same is Jerusalem: and thence ascending to the top of the mountain, which is over against Geennom to the west in the end of the valley of Raphaim, northward.  And it passeth on from the top of the mountain to the fountain of the water of Nephtoa: and reacheth to the towns of mount Ephron: and it bendeth towards Baala, which is Cariathiarim, that is to say, the city of the woods.  And it compasseth from Baala westward unto mount Seir: and passeth by the side of mount Jarim to the north into Cheslon: and goeth down into Bethsames, and passeth into Thamna.  And it reacheth northward to a part of Accaron at the side: and bendeth to Sechrona, and passeth mount Baala: and cometh into Jebneel, and is bounded westward with the great sea.  These are the borders round about of the children of Juda in their kindreds.
 But to Caleb the son of Jephone he gave a portion in the midst of the children of Juda, as the Lord had commanded him: Cariath-Arbe the father of Enac. which is Hebron.  And Caleb destroyed out of it the three sons of Ehac, Sesai and Ahiman. and Tholmai of the race of Enac.  And going up from thence he came to the inhabitants of Dabir, which before was called Cariath-Sepher, that is to say, the city of letters.  And Caleb said:
He that shall smite Cariath-Sepher, and take it, I will give him Axa my daughter to wife.
 And Othoniel the son of Cenez, the younger brother of Caleb, took it: and he gave him Axa his daughter to wife.  And as they were going together, she was moved by her husband to ask a field of her father, and she sighed as she sat on her ass. And Caleb said to her:
What aileth thee?
 But she answered:
Give me a blessing: thou hast given me a southern and dry land, give me also a land that is watered.
And Caleb gave her the upper and the nether watery ground.
 This is the possession of the tribe of the children of Juda by their kindreds.
 And the cities from the uttermost parts of the children of Juda by the borders of Edom to the south, were Cabseel and Eder and Jagur,  And Cina and Dimona and Adada,  And Cades and Asor and Jethnam,  Ziph and Telem and Baloth,  New Asor and Carioth, Hesron, which is Asor.  Amam, Sama and Molada,  And Asergadda and Hassemon and Bethphelet,  And Hasersual and Bersabee and Baziothia,  And Baala and Jim and Esem,  And Eltholad and Cesil and Harma,  And Siceleg and Medemena and Sensenna,  Lebaoth and Selim and Aen and Remmon: all the cities twenty-nine, and their villages.
 But in the plains: Estaol and Sarea and Asena,  And Zanoe and Engannim and Taphua and Enaim,  And Jerimoth and Adullam, Socho and Azeca,  And Saraim and Adithaim and Gedera and Gederothaim: fourteen cities, and their villages.
 Sanan and Hadassa and Magdalgad,  Delean and Masepha and Jecthel,  Lachis and Bascath and Eglon,  Chebbon and Leheman and Cethlis,  And Gideroth and Bethdagon and Naama and Maceda: sixteen cities, and their villages.
 Labana and Ether and Asan,  Jephtha and Esna and Nesib,  And Ceila and Achzib and Maresa: nine cities, and their villages.  Accaron with the towns and villages thereof.  From Accaron even to the sea: all places that lie towards Azotus and the villages thereof.
 Azotus with its towns and villages. Gaza with its towns and villages, even to the torrent of Egypt, and the great sea that is the border thereof.
 And in the mountain Samir and Jether and Socoth,  And Danna and Cariath-senna, this is Dabir:  Anab and Istemo and Anim,  Gosen and Olon and Gilo: eleven cities and their villages.
 Arab and Ruma and Esaan,  And Janum and Beththaphua and Apheca,  Athmatha and Cariath-Arbe, this is Hebron and Sior: nine cities and their villages.
 Maon and Carmel and Ziph and Jota,  Jezrael and Jucadam and Zanoe,  Accain, Gabaa and Thamna: ten cities and their villages.
 Halhul, and Bessur, and Gedor,  Mareth, and Bethanoth, and Eltecon: six cities and their villages.
 Cariathbaal, the same is Cariathiarim, the city of woods, and Arebba: two cities and their villages.
 In the desert Betharaba, Meddin and Sachacha,  And Nebsan, and the city of salt, and Engaddi: six cities and their villages.
 But the children of Juda could not destroy the Jebusite that dwelt in Jerusalem: and the Jebusite dwelt with the children of Juda in Jerusalem until this present day.
Chapter 16 verses 1-10 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And the lot of the sons of Joseph fell from the Jordan over against Jericho and the waters thereof, on the east: the wilderness which goeth up from Jericho to the mountain of Bethel:  And goeth out from Bethel to Luza: and passeth the border of Archi, to Ataroth,  And goeth down westward, by the border of Jephleti, unto the borders of Beth-horon the nether, and to Gazer: and the countries of it are ended by the great sea:  And Manasses and Ephraim the children of Joseph possessed it.
 And the border of the children of Ephraim was according to their kindreds: and their possession towards the east was Ataroth-addar unto Beth-horon the upper.  And the confines go out unto the sea: but Machmethath looketh to the north, and it goeth round the borders eastward into Thanath-selo: and passeth along on the east side to Janoe.  And it goeth down from Janoe into Ataroth and Naaratha: and it cometh to Jericho, and goeth out to the Jordan.  From Taphua it passeth on towards the sea into the valley of reeds, and the goings out thereof are at the most salt sea. This is the possession of the tribe of the children of Ephraim by their families.  And there were cities with their villages separated for the children of Ephraim in the midst of the possession of the children of Manasses.  And the children of Ephraim slew not the Chanaanite, who dwelt in Gazer: and the Chanaanite dwelt in the midst of Ephraim until this day, paying tribute.
Chapter 17 verses 1-18 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And this lot fell to the tribe of Manasses (for he is the firstborn of Joseph) to Machir the firstborn of Manasses the father of Galaad, who was a warlike man, and had for possession Galaad and Basan.  And to the rest of the children of Manasses according to their families: to the children of Abiezer, and to the children of Helec, and to the children of Esriel, and to the children of Sechem, and to the children of Hepher, and to the children of Semida: these are the male children of Manasses the son of Joseph, by their kindreds.  But Salphaad the son of Hepher the son of Galaad the son of Machir the son of Manasses had no sons, but only daughters: whose names are these, Maala and Noa and Hegla and Melcha and Thersa.  And they came in the presence of Eleazar the priest and of Josue the son of Nun, and of the princes, saying:
The Lord commanded by the hand of Moses, that a possession should be given us in the midst of our brethren.
And he gave them according to the commandment of the Lord a possession amongst the brethren of their father.  And there fell ten portions to Manasses, beside the land of Galaad and Basan beyond the Jordan.  For the daughters of Manasses possessed inheritance in the midst of his sons. And the land of Galaad fell to the lot of the rest of the children of Manasses.
 And the border of Manasses was from Aser, Machmethath which looketh towards Sichem: and it goeth out on the right hand by the inhabitants of the fountain of Taphua.  For the lot of Manasses took in the land of Taphua, which is on the borders of Manasses, and belongs to the children of Ephraim.  And the border goeth down to the valley of the reeds, to the south of the torrent of the cities of Ephraim, which are in the midst of the cities of Manasses: the border of Manasses is on the north side of the torrent, and the outgoings of it are at the sea:  So that the possession of Ephraim is on the south, and on the north that of Manasses, and the sea is the border of both, and they are joined together in the tribe of Aser on the north, and in the tribe of Issachar on the east.  And the inheritance of Manasses in Issachar and in Aser, was Bethsan and its villages, and Jeblaam with its villages, and the inhabitants of Dor, with the towns thereof: the inhabitants also of Endor with the villages thereof: and in like manner the inhabitants of Thenac with the villages thereof: and the inhabitants of Mageddo with their villages, and the third part of the city of Nopheth.
 Neither could the children of Manasses overthrow these cities, but the Chanaanite began to dwell in his land.  But after that the children of Israel were grown strong, they subdued the Chanaanites, and made them their tributaries, and they did not kill them.
 And the children of Joseph spoke to Josue, and said:
Why hast thou given me but one lot and one portion to possess, whereas I am of so great a multitude, and the Lord hath blessed me?
 And Josue said to them:
If thou be a great people, go up into the woodland, and cut down room for thyself in the land of the Pherezite and the Raphaims: because the possession of mount Ephraim is too narrow for thee.
 And the children of Joseph answered him:
We cannot go up to the mountains, for the Chanaanites that dwell in the low lands, wherein are situate Bethsan with its towns, and Jezrael in the midst of the valley, have chariots of iron.
 And Josue said to the house of Joseph, to Ephraim and Manasses:
Thou art a great people, and of great strength, thou shalt not have one lot only:  But thou shalt pass to the mountain, and shalt cut down the wood, and make thyself room to dwell in: and mayst proceed farther, when thou hast destroyed the Chanaanites, who as thou sayest have iron chariots, and are very strong.
Chapter 18 verses 1-28 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And all the children of Israel assembled together in Silo, and there they set up the tabernacle of the testimony, and the land was subdued before them.  But there remained seven tribes of the children of Israel, which as yet had not received their possessions.  And Josue said to them:
How long are you indolent and slack, and go not in to possess the land which the Lord the God of your fathers hath given you?  Choose of every tribe three men, that I may send them, and they may go and compass the land, and mark it out according to the number of each multitude: and bring back to me what they have marked out.  Divide to yourselves the land into seven parts: let Juda be in his bounds on the south side, and the house of Joseph on the north.  The land in the midst between these mark ye out into seven parts; and you shall come hither to me, that I may cast lots for you before the Lord your God.  For the Levites have no part among you, but the priesthood of the Lord is their inheritance. And Gad and Ruben, and the half tribe of Manasses have already received their possessions beyond the Jordan eastward: which Moses the servant of the Lord gave them.
 And when the men were risen up, to go to mark out the land, Josue commanded them, saying:
Go round the land and mark it out, and return to me: that I may cast lots for you before the Lord in Silo.
 So they went: and surveying it divided it into seven parts, writing them down in a book. And they returned to Josue, to the camp in Silo.  And he cast lots before the Lord in Silo, and divided the land to the children of Israel into seven parts.
 And first came up the lot of the children of Benjamin by their families, to possess the land between the children of Juda, and the children of Joseph.  And their border northward was from the Jordan: going along by the side of Jericho on the north side, and thence going up westward to the mountains, and reaching to the wilderness of Bethaven,  And passing along southward by Luza, the same is Bethel: and it goeth down into Ataroth-addar to the mountain, that is on the south of the nether Beth-horon.  And it bendeth thence going round towards the sea, south of the mountain that looketh towards Beth-horon to the southwest: and the outgoings thereof are into Cariathbaal, which is called also Cariathiarim, a city of the children of Juda. This is their coast towards the sea, westward.
 But on the south side the border goeth out from part of Cariathiarim towards the sea, and cometh to the fountain of the waters of Nephtoa.  And it goeth down to that part of the mountain that looketh on the valley of the children of Ennom: and is over against the north quarter in the furthermost part of the valley of Raphaim, and it goeth down into Geennom (that is the valley of Ennom) by the side of the Jebusite to the south: and cometh to the fountain of Rogel,  Passing thence to the north, and going out to Ensemes, that is to say, the fountain of the sue:  And it passeth along to the hills that are over against the ascent of Adommim: and it goeth down to Abenboen, that is, the stone of Been the son of Ruben: and it passeth on the north side to the champaign countries; and goeth down into the plain,  And it passeth by Bethhagla northward: and the outgoings thereof are towards the north of the most salt sea at the south end of the Jordan:
 Which is the border of it on the east side.
This is the possession of the children of Benjamin by their borders round about, and their families.
 And their cities were, Jericho and Bethhagla and Vale-Casis,  Betharaba and Samaraim and Bethel,  And Avim and Aphara and Ophera,  The town Emona and Ophni and Gabee: twelve cities, and their villages.
 Gabam and Rama and Beroth,  And Mesphe, and Caphara, and Amosa,  And Recem, Jarephel and Tharela,  And Sela, Eleph and Jebus, which is Jerusalem, Gabaath and Cariath: fourteen cities, and their villages.
This is the possession of the children of Benjamin by their families.
Chapter 19 verses 1-51 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And the second lot came forth for the children of Simeon by their kindreds: and their inheritance was
 In the midst of the possession of the children of Juda: Bersabee and Sabee and Molada,  And Hasersual, Bala and Asem,  And Eltholad, Bethul and Harma,  And Siceleg and Bethmarchaboth and Hasersusa,  And Bethlebaoth and Sarohen: thirteen cities, and their villages.
 Ain and Remmon and Athor and Asan: four cities, and their villages.
 And all the villages round about these cities to Baalath Beer Ramath to the south quarter.
This is the inheritance of the children of Simeon according to their kindreds,
 In the possession and lot of the children of Juda: because it was too great, and therefore the children of Simeon had their possession in the midst of their inheritance.
 And the third lot fell to the children of Zabulon by their kindreds: and the border of their possession was unto Sarid.  And it went up from the sea and from Merala, and came to Debbaseth: as far as the torrent, which is over against Jeconam.  And it returneth from Sarid eastward to the borders of Ceseleththabor: and it goeth out to Dabereth, and ascendeth towards Japhie.  And it passeth along from thence to the east side of Gethhepher and Thacasin: and goeth out to Remmon, Amthar and Noa.  And it turneth about to the north of Hanathon: and the outgoings thereof are the valley of Jephtahel,  And Cateth and Naalol and Semeron and Jedala and Bethlehem: twelve cities and their villages.
 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Zabulon by their kindreds, the cities and their villages.
 The fourth lot came out to Issachar by their kindreds.  And his inheritance was Jezrael and Casaloth and Sunem,  And Hapharaim and Seen and Anaharath,  And Rabboth and Cesion, Abes,  And Rameth and Engannim and Enhadda and Bethpheses.  And the border thereof cometh to Thabor and Sehesima and Bethsames: and the outgoings thereof shall be at the Jordan: sixteen cities, and their villages.
 This is the possession of the sons of Issachar by their kindreds, the cities and their villages.
 And the fifth lot fell to the tribe of the children of Aser by their kindreds:  And their border was Halcath and Chali and Beten and Axaph,  And Elmelech and Amaad and Messal: and it reacheth to Carmel by the sea and Sihor and Labanath,  And it returneth towards the east to Bethdagon: and passeth along to Zabulon and to the valley of Jephthael towards the north to Bethemec and Nehiel. And it goeth out to the left side of Cabul,  And to Abaran and Rohob and Hamon and Cana, as far as the great Sidon.  And it returneth to Horma to the strong city of Tyre, and to Hosa: and the outgoings thereof shall be at the sea from the portion of Achziba:  And Amma and Aphec and Rohob: twenty-two cities, and their villages.
 This is the possession of the children of Aser by their kindreds, and the cities and their villages.
 The sixth lot came out to the sons of Nephtali by their families:  And the border began from Heleph and Elon to Saananim, and Adami, which is Neceb, and Jebnael even to Lecum: and their outgoings unto the Jordan:  And the border returneth westward to Azanotthabor, and goeth out from thence to Hucuca, and passeth along to Zabulon southward, and to Aser westward, and to Juda upon the Jordan towards the rising of the sun.  And the strong cities are Assedim, Ser, and Emath, and Reccath and Cenereth,  And Edema and Arama, Asor,  And Cedes and Edri, Enhasor,  And Jeron and Magdalel, Herem, and Bethanath and Bethsames: nineteen cities, and their villages.
 This is the possession of the tribe of the children of Nephtali by their kindreds, the cities and their villages.
 The seventh lot came out to the tribe of the children of Dan by their families:  And the border of their possession was Saraa and Esthaol, and Hirsemes, that is, the city of the sun.  Selebin and Aialon and Jethela,  Elon and Themna and Acron,  Elthece, Gebbethon and Balaath,  And Jud and Bane and Barach and Gethremmon:  And Mejarcon and Arecon, with the border that looketh towards Joppe,  And is terminated there. And the children of Dan went up and fought against Lesem, and took it: and they put it to the sword, and possessed it, and dwelt in it, calling the name of it Lesem Dan, by the name of Dan their father.
 This is the possession of the tribe of the sons of Dan, by their kindreds, the cities and their villages.
 And when he had made an end of dividing the land by lot to each one by their tribes, the children of Israel gave a possession to Josue the son of Nun in the midst of them,  According to the commandment of the Lord, the city which he asked for, Thamnath Saraa, in mount Ephraim: and he built up the city, and dwelt in it.
 These are the possessions which Eleazar the priest, and Josue the son of Nun, and the princes of the families, and of the tribes of the children of Israel, distributed by lot in Silo, before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the testimony, and they divided the land.
Chapter 20 verses 1-9 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And the Lord spoke to Josue, saying:
Speak to the children of Israel and say to them:  Appoint cities of refuge, a of which I spoke to you by the hand of Moses:  That whosoever shall kill a person unawares may flee to them: and may escape the wrath of the kinsman, who is the avenger of blood:  And when he shall flee to one of these cities: he shall stand before the gate of the city, and shall speak to the ancients of that city, such things as prove him innocent: and so shall they receive him, and give him a place to dwell in.  And when the avenger of blood shall pursue him, they shall not deliver him into his hands, because he slew his neighbour unawares, and is not proved to have been his enemy two or three days before.  And he shall dwell in that city, till he stand before judgment to give an account of his fact, and till the death of the high priest, who shall be at that time: then shall the manslayer return, and go into his own city and house from whence he fled.
 And they appointed Cedes in Galilee of mount Nephtali, and Sichem in mount Ephraim, and Cariath-Arbe, the same is Hebron in the mountain of Juda.  And beyond the Jordan to the east of Jericho, they appointed Bosor, which is upon the plain of the wilderness of the tribe of Ruben, and Ramoth in Galaad of the tribe of Cad, and Gaulon in Basan of the tribe of Manasses.
 These cities were appointed for all the children of Israel, and for the strangers, that dwelt among them: that whosoever had killed a person unawares might flee to them, and not die by the hand of the kinsman, coveting to revenge the blood that was shed, until he should stand before the people to lay open his cause.
Chapter 21 verses 1-43 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Then the princes of the families of Levi came to Eleazar the priest, and to Josue the son of Nun, and to the princes of the kindreds of all the tribes of the children of Israel:  And they spoke to them in Silo in the land of Chanaan, and said:
The Lord commanded by the hand of Moses, that cities should be given us to dwell in, and their suburbs to feed our cattle.
 And the children of Israel gave out of their possessions according to the commandment of the Lord, cities and their suburbs.
 And the lot came out for the family of Caath of the children of Aaron the priest out of the tribes of Juda, and of Simeon, and of Benjamin, thirteen cities.  And to the rest of the children of Caath, that is, to the Levites, who remained, out of the tribes of Ephraim, and of Dan, and the half tribe of Manasses, ten cities.  And the lot came out to the children of Gerson, that they should take of the tribes of Issachar and of Aser and of Nephtali, and of the half tribe of Manasses in Basan, thirteen cities.  And to the sons of Merari by their kindreds, of the tribes of Ruben and or Cad and of Zabulon, twelve cities.  And the children of Israel gave to the Levites the cities and their suburbs, as the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses, giving to every one by lot.
 Of the tribes of the children of Juda and of Simeon Josue gave cities: whose names are these,  To the sons of Aaron, of the families of Caath of the race of Levi (for the first lot came out for them)  The city of Arbe the father of Enac, which is called Hebron, in the mountain of Juda, and the suburbs thereof round about.  But the fields and the villages thereof he had given to Caleb the son of Jephone for his possession.  He gave therefore to the children of Aaron the priest, Hebron a city of refuge, and the suburbs thereof: and Lobna with the suburbs thereof,  And Jether and Estemo,  And Holon, and Dabir,  And Ain, and Jeta, and Bethsames, with their suburbs: nine cities out of the two tribes, as hath been said.
 And out of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, Gabaon, and Gabae,  And Anathoth and Almon, with their suburbs: four cities.
 All the cities together of the children of Aaron the priest, were thirteen, with their suburbs.
 And to the rest of the families of the children of Caath of the race of Levi was given this possession.  Of the tribe of Ephraim, Sichem one of the cities of refuge, with the suburbs thereof in mount Ephraim, and Cater,  And Cibsaim, and Beth-horon, with their suburbs, four cities.  And of the tribe of Dan, Eltheco and Gabathon,  And Aialon and Gethremmon, with their suburbs, four cities.  And of the half tribe of Manasses, Thanac and Gethremmon, with their suburbs, two cities.
 All the cities were ten, with their suburbs, which were given to the children of Caath, of the inferior degree.
 To the children of Gerson also of the race of Levi out of the half tribe of Manasses, Gaulon in Basan, one of the cities of refuge, and Bosra, with their suburbs, two cities.  And of the tribe of Issachar, Cesion, and Dabereth,  And Jaramoth, and Engannim, with their suburbs, four cities.  And of the tribe of Aser, Masal and Abdon,  And Helcath, and Rohob, with their suburbs, four cities.  Of the tribe also of Nephtali, Cedes in Galilee, one of the cities of refuge: and Hammoth Dor, and Carthan, with their suburbs, three cities.
 All the cities of the families of Gerson, were thirteen, with their suburbs.
 And to the children of Merari, Levites of the inferior degree, by their families were given of the tribe of Zabulon, Jecnam and Cartha,  And Damna and Naalol, four cities with their suburbs;  Of the tribe of Ruben beyond the Jordan over against Jericho, Bosor in the wilderness, one of the cities of refuge, Miser and Jaser and Jethson and Mephaath, four cities with their suburbs.  Of the tribe of Gad, Ramoth in Galaad, one of the cities of refuge, and Manaim and Hesebon and Jaser, four cities with their suburbs.
 All the cities of the children of Merari by their families and kindreds, were twelve.
 So all the cities of the Levites within the possession of the children of Israel were forty-eight,  With their suburbs, each distributed by the families.
 And the Lord God gave to Israel all the land that he had sworn to give to their fathers: and they possessed it and dwelt in it.  And he gave them peace from all nations round about: and none of their enemies durst stand against them, but were brought under their dominion. Not so much as one word, which he had promised to perform unto them, was made void, but all came to pass.
Chapter 22 verses 1-34 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 At the same time Josue called the Rubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses,  And said to them:
You have done all that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you: you have also obeyed me in all things,  Neither have you left your brethren this long time, until this present day, keeping the commandment of the Lord your God.  Therefore as the Lord your God hath given your brethren rest and peace, as he promised: return, and go to your dwellings, and to the land of your possession, which Moses the servant of the Lord gave you beyond the Jordan:  Yet so that you observe attentively, and in work fulfill the commandment and the law which Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you: that you love the Lord your God, and walk in all his ways, and keep all his commandments, and cleave to him, and serve him with all your heart, and with all your soul.
 And Josue blessed them, and sent them away, and they returned to their dwellings.
 Now to half the tribe of Manasses, Moses had given a possession in Basan: and therefore to the half that remained, Josue gave a lot among the rest of their brethren beyond the Jordan to the west. And when he sent them away to their dwellings and had blessed them,
 He said to them: With much substance and riches, you return to your settlements, with silver and gold, brass and iron, and variety of raiment: divide the prey of your enemies with your brethren.
 So the children of Ruben, and the children of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasses returned, and parted from the children of Israel in Silo, which is in Chanaan, to go into Galaad the land of their possession, which they had obtained according to the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses.  And when they were come to the banks of the Jordan, in the land of Chanaan, they built an altar immensely great near the Jordan.
 And when the children of Israel had heard of it, and certain messengers had brought them an account that the children of Ruben, and of Cad, and the half tribe of Manasses had built an altar in the land of Chanaan, upon the banks of the Jordan, over against the children of Israel:  They all assembled in Silo, to go up and fight against them.
 And in the mean time they sent to them into the land of Galaad, Phinees the son of Eleazar the priest,  And ten princes with him, one of every tribe.  Who came to the children of Ruben, and of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasses, into the land of Galaad, and said to them:
 Thus saith all the people of the Lord: What meaneth this transgression? Why have you forsaken the Lord the God of Israel, building a sacrilegious altar, and revolting from the worship of him?  Is it a small thing to you that you sinned with Beelphegor, and the stain of that crime remaineth in us to this day? and many of the people perished.  And you have forsaken the Lord today, and tomorrow his wrath will rage against all Israel.  But if you think the land of your possession to be unclean, pass over to the land wherein is the tabernacle of the Lord, and dwell among us: only depart not from the Lord, and from our society, by building an altar beside the altar of the Lord our God.  Did not Achan the son of Zare transgress the commandment of the Lord, and his wrath lay upon all the people of Israel? And he was but one man, and would to God he alone had perished in his wickedness.
 And the children of Ruben, and of Gad, and of the half tribe of Manasses answered the princes of the embassage of Israel:
 The Lord the most mighty God, the Lord the most mighty God, he knoweth, and Israel also shall understand: If with the design of transgression we have set up this altar, let him not save us, but punish us immediately:  And if we did it with that mind, that we might lay upon it holocausts, and sacrifice, and victims of peace offerings, let him require and judge:  And not rather with this thought and design, that we should say: Tomorrow your children will say to our children: What have you to do with the Lord the God of Israel?  The Lord hath put the river Jordan for a border between us and you, O ye children of Ruben, and ye children of Gad: and therefore you have no part in the Lord. And by this occasion you children shall turn away our children from the fear of the Lord. We therefore thought, it best,  And said: Let us build us an altar, not for holocausts, nor to offer victims,  But for a testimony between us and you, and our posterity and yours, that we may serve the Lord, and that we may have a right to offer both holocausts, and victims and sacrifices of peace offerings: and that your children tomorrow may not say to our children: You have no part in the Lord.  And if they will say so, they shall answer them: Behold the altar of the Lord, which our fathers made, not for holocausts, nor for sacrifice, but for a testimony between us and you.  God keep us from any such wickedness that we should revolt from the Lord, and leave off following his steps, by building an altar to offer holocausts, and sacrifices, and victims, beside the altar of the Lord our God, which is erected before his tabernacle.
 And when Phinees the priest, and the princes of the embassage, who were with him, had heard this, they were satisfied: and they admitted most willingly the words of the children of Ruben, and Gad, and of the half tribe of Manasses.  And Phinees the priest the son of Eleazar said to them:
Now we know that the Lord is with us, because you are not guilty of this revolt, and you have delivered the children of Israel from the hand of the Lord.
 And he returned with the princes from the children of Ruben and Gad, out of the land of Galaad, into the land of Chanaan, to the children of Israel, and brought them word again.  And the saying pleased all that heard it. And the children of Israel praised God, and they no longer said that they would go up against them, and fight, and destroy the land of their possession.
 And the children of Ruben, and the children of Cad called the altar which they had built,
Our testimony, that the Lord is God.
Chapter 23 verses 1-16 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And when a long time was passed, after that the Lord had given peace to Israel, all the nations round about being subdued, and Josue being now old, and far advanced in years:  Josue called for all Israel, and for the elders, and for the princes, and for the judges, and for the masters, and said to them:
I am old, and far advanced in years:  And you see all that the Lord your God hath done to all the nations round about, how he himself hath fought for you:
 And now since he hath divided to you by lot all the land, from the east of the Jordan unto the great sea, and many nations yet remain:  The Lord your God will destroy them, and take them away from before your face, and you shall possess the land as he hath promised you.
 Only take courage, and be careful to observe all things that are written in the book of the law of Moses: and turn not aside from them neither to the right hand nor to the left:  Lest after that you are come in among the Gentiles, who will remain among you, you should swear by the name of their gods, and serve them, and adore them:  But cleave ye unto the Lord your God: as you have done until this day.
 And then the Lord God will take away before your eyes nations that are great and very strong, and no man shall be able to resist you.  One of you shall chase a thousand men of the enemies: because the Lord your God himself will fight for you, as he hath promised.
 This only take care of with all diligence, that you love the Lord your God.  But if you will embrace the errors of these nations that dwell among you, and make marriages with them, and join friendships:  Know ye for a certainty that the Lord your God will not destroy them before your face, but they shall be a pit and a snare in your way, and a stumblingblock at your side, and stakes in your eyes, till he take you away and destroy you from off this excellent land, which he hath given you.
 Behold this day I am going into the way of all the earth, and you shall know with all your mind that of all the words which the Lord promised to perform for you, not one hath failed.  Therefore as he hath fulfilled in deed, what he promised, and all things prosperous have come: so Will he bring upon you all the evils he hath threatened, till he take you away and destroy you from off this excellent land, which he hath given you,
 When you shall have transgressed the covenant of the Lord your God, which he hath made with you, and shall have served strange gods, and adored them: then shall the indignation of the Lord rise up quickly and speedily against you, and you shall be taken away from this excellent land, which he hath delivered to you.
Chapter 24 verses 30-33 have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And they buried him in the border of his possession in Thamnathsare, which is situate in mount Ephraim, on the north side of mount Gaas.
 And Israel served the Lord all the days of Josue, and of the ancients that lived a long time after Josue, and that had known all the works of the Lord which he had done in Israel.
 And the bones of Joseph which the children of Israel had taken out of Egypt, they buried in Sichem, in that part of the field which Jacob had bought of the sons of Hemor the father of Sichem, for a hundred young ewes, and it was in the possession of the sons of Joseph.
Eleazar also the son of Aaron died: and they
buried him in Gabaath that belongeth to Phinees his son, which was
given him in
Processed by Mrs. R.M., Puerto Rico
Processed by Mrs. R.M., Puerto Rico